The over 300 digital maps, charts and videos shared here are original creations by Elya J. Zhang and her undergraduate students. They are visual guides to our research findings as we study the history of sovereign debt, commodity, pandemic, railway, and infrastructure building. Materials can be identified by topic (15 subsections on this site), by keyword (1,400+ tags listed below), or by full text search. Elyadatabase.com is a labor of love for history, geography, and fun learning. We look forward to learning from your feedback and ideas.

Terms Display
Aba, Tibet (China)*1 Aba Samuel Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Abbasid Caliphate (Islam)*2 Abo mountain pass (U.S.)*1 Abuja capital city (Nigeria)*1 Addis Ababa capital city (Ethiopia)*1 Afghanistan (country, Central/South Asia)*3 Africa*16 African-American community*1 aging society*1 agribusiness*6 Aksai Chin, Xinjiang (China)*1 Aksuu, Xinjiang (China)*1 Al-Andalus Caliphate (Islam)*1 Alabama state (U.S.)*1 Alamos, Sonora (Mexico)*1 Alaska state (U.S.)*1 Albany, New York (U.S.)*1 Alexandria port (Egypt)*3 Algeria (country, North Africa)*2 Amdo, Tibet (China)*1 Amkor Technologies (company)*1 Amsterdam capital city (Netherlands)*1 Angola (country, Southern Africa)*1 Anhui province (China)*2 Animation-Comic-Game Hong Kong *1 anime (art form)*3 Anqing, Anhui (China)*1 Anshan, Liaoning (China)*3 anti-Asian American hate crime*1 anti-mask protest*1 anti-slavery movement*1 anti-tobacco literature*1 Antioch city (Turkey)*2 Antwerp city (Belgium)*1 Anyang, Henan (China)*1 apocalypticism*1 aquaculture business*1 Arabian Peninsula*1 Arabian Sea*1 Arapaho (native American tribe)*1 Argentina (country, South America)*3 Arizona state (U.S.)*1 Arkansas state (U.S.)*1 Armenia (country, Western Asia)*2 Arthur P. Gorman (people)*1 Ashaiman Aquaculture Centre (Ghana)*1 Ashgabat capital city (Turkmenistan)*1 Ashland, Tennessee (U.S.)*1 Asian-American community*1 Asian American-owned business*1 Assam state (India)*1 Atchison, Kansas (U.S.)*1 Athens capital city (Greece)*1 Atlanta, Georgia (U.S.)*2 Atlantic Ocean*2 Aum Shinrikyo (doomsday cult)*2 Auschwitz extermination camp (Poland)*1 Austin, Texas (U.S.)*1 Australia (country, Oceania)*1 Austro-Hungarian Empire*1 automobile industry*2 Ayutthaya historic city (Thailand)*1 Azerbaijian (country, Eastern Europe/Western Asia)*3 Azores province (Mexico)*1 Bagamoyo Port (Tanzania)*1 Baghdad capital city (Iraq)*6 Bahir Dar city (Ethiopia)*1 Bajoga region (Nigeria)*1 Bakubung Platinum Mine (South Africa)*1 Baku capital city (Azerbaijian)*2 Bali province (Indonesia)*1 Balkans Peninsula*2 Baltimore, Maryland (U.S.)*1 Banaue Rice Terraces (Philippines)*1 Bandar Abbas port (Iran)*1 Bandundu province (DR Congo)*1 Bangkok-Chiang Mai high-speed rail (Thailand)*1 Bangkok capital city (Thailand)*2 Bangladesh (country, South Asia)*1 Bankasoka Hydro Dam (Sierra Leone)*1 Baoding, Hebei (China)*1 Baoji, Shaanxi (China)*1 Baotou, Inner Mongolia (China)*1 Basra city (Iraq)*2 Bataan Death March*1 Baton Rouge, Louisiana (U.S.)*1 Battambang city (Cambodia)*1 Battle of Talas in 751 CE (Central Asia)*1 Bauchi state (Nigeria)*1 Beijign capital city (China)*8 Beijing-Hankou Railway (China)*2 Beira Fishing Port (Mozambique)*1 Beitbridge-Harare-Chirundu Highway (Zimbabwe)*1 Belgrade capital city (Serbia)*2 Beligum (country, Western Europe)*1 Belton, Kansas (U.S.)*1 Belzec extermination camp (Poland)*1 Bengal region (India and Bangladesh)*3 Benjamin Mkapa Stadium (Tanzania)*1 Benson, Arizona (U.S.)*1 Benxi, Liaoning (China)*1 Berlin-Baghdad Railway*1 Berlin capital city (Germany)*2 Bermuda territory (U.K.)*1 Bien Hoa Orphanage (Vietnam)*1 Bilibili (company)*1 Billings, Montana (U.S.)*1 biological warfare*2 Birka trading port (Sweden)*1 birthright citizenship*1 Bismarch, North Dakota (U.S.)*1 Bizwind Philippines (company)*1 Black Death*1 Black Lives Matter*1 Black Sea*1 Bloemfontein city (South Africa)*1 Blue Nile river (Ethiopia and Sudan)*1 Bo-Kenema Highway (Sierra Leone)*1 Bolzano concentration camp*1 Bombay/Mumbai city (India)*6 Book of Changes (I Ching)*1 Boracay island (Philippines)*1 Bordeaux wine (commodity)*1 border city*2 border dispute*1 Borneo island (Indonesia)*1 Bo Stadium (Sierra Leone)*1 Boston & Albany Railroad (U.S.)*1 Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.)*7 Boten town (Laos)*1 Boyongan mine (Philippines)*1 Bozeman, Montana (U.S.)*1 Brazil (country, South America)*5 British Ceylon colony (Sri Lanka)*1 British colony*1 British East India Company (EIC)*1 Brunei (country, Southeast Asia)*2 bubonic plague (disease)*1 Budapest capital city (Hungary)*2 Buddhism*2 Buffalo, New York (U.S.)*1 Bui Dam (Ghana)*1 Bukhara city (Uzbekistan)*1 Bulawayo city (Zimbabwe)*1 Bulgaria (city, Southeast Europe)*1 Burma Camp (Ghana)*1 Busan port (South Korea)*4 Byzantine Empire*2 Cairo capital city (Egypt)*4 Cajon mountain pass (U.S.)*1 Calcutta/Kolkata city (India)*2 California state (U.S.)*4 Cambodia (country, Southeaste Asia)*1 Canada (country, North America)*5 Cananea, Sonora (Mexico)*1 Canary Islands (Spain)*1 Canatuan mine (Philippines)*1 Cangzhou, Hebei (China)*1 Canyon Diablo, Arizona (U.S.)*1 Cape Town capital city (South Africa)*1 Carlton, Minnesota (U.S.)*1 cashew (commodity)*1 Caspian Sea*2 Ceará state (Brazil)*1 Cebu city (Philippines)*1 cell tower*2 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)*3 Central America*1 Central Asia*1 Central Europe*1 Chagatai Khanate*1 Chambishi copper mine (Zambia)*1 Chamdo, Tibet (China)*1 Chang'an historic city (China)*1 Changchun, Heilongjiang (China)*6 Changsha, Hunan (China)*2 Changwon city (South Korea)*1 Changzhou, Jiangsu (China)*2 Charlestown State Prision (U.S.)*1 Charlotte, North Carolina (U.S.)*1 Chelmno extermination camp (Poland)*1 Chengdu, Sichuan (China)*4 Chennai/Madras city (India)*1 Cheyenne (native American tribe)*1 Chiang Mai city (Thailand)*1 Chibuluma South Mine (Zambia)*1 Chicago, Illinois (U.S.)*6 childhood abandonment*1 China's Belt and Road Initiative*18 China (Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms)*1 China (Han dynasty)*1 China (Japanese invasion 1937-45)*1 China (Manchu Qing dynasty)*1 China (Ming dynasty)*2 China (Mongol Yuan Dynasty)*1 China (Northern Song Dynasty)*2 China (Period of Disunity)*1 China (Shang Dynasty)*2 China (Southern Song Dynasty)*1 China (Tang Dynasty)*2 China (Tang dynasty)*3 China (Xia dynasty)*1 China (Yuan dynasty)*1 China (Zhou dynasty)*1 China*11 China-Sierra Leone Friendship Hospital (Sierra Leone)*1 China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (CCECC)*1 China Communications Construction Company (CCCC)*1 China Development Bank (CDB)*1 China Kingho Group (company)*1 China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)*1 China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)*1 China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO)*1 China Sinopec (company)*1 Chinese-Japanese joint venture*1 Chinese Communist Party (CCP)*1 Chinese Confucius Institute*1 Chinese Eastern Railway (Manchuria)*1 Chinese Export-Import Bank*2 Chinese government*1 Chita city (Russia)*1 Chittagong city (Bangladesh)*1 cholera (disease)*1 Chongqing, Sichuang (China)*4 Cho Ray Hospital (Vietnam)*1 Chōsen Shinto Shrine (South Korea)*1 chromium ore (commodity)*1 Chuangcheongbuk-do/North Chungcheong Province (South Korea)*1 Cikarang, West Java (Indonesia)*1 Cincinnati, Ohio (U.S.)*1 cinnamon (commodity)*1 Cleveland, Ohio (U.S.)*3 clock (commodity)*1 clove (commodity)*3 coal industry*6 cobalt mine (DR Congo)*1 cocoa (commodity)*1 COEX Convention & Exhibition Center (South Korea)*1 coffee (commodity)*3 Cold War*2 Colombia (country, South America/North America)*3 Colombo capital city (Sri Lanka)*2 colonial education*1 colonial settlement*1 Colorado River (U.S.)*1 Colorado state (U.S.)*2 comfort women*1 Comic World Hong Kong*1 Comic World Taiwan*1 Confucianism*1 Constantinople historic city (Turkey)*3 Cook islands (country, South Pacific Ocean)*1 Copperbelt (Zambia and DR Congo)*1 Córdoba city (Spain)*1 Corral railway town (Mexico)*1 Corregidor Island (Philippines)*1 Costa Rica (country, Central America)*1 cotton (commodity)*5 countercultural movement*1 coup d'état*1 COVID-19*35 Cracow/Kraków city (Poland)*1 Crédit Mobilier scandal (U.S.)*2 Cuba (country, Caribbean/South America)*2 Culiacán, Sinaloa (Mexico)*1 cultural diplomacy*1 Cultural Revolution (China)*1 culture of map*1 Daegu city (South Korea)*1 Daejon city (South Korea)*2 Dalian, Liaoning (China)*6 Dallas, Texas (U.S.)*5 dam*1 Damascus capital city (U.S.)*2 Damietta port (Egypt)*1 Da Nhim Hydroelectric Power Station (Vietnam)*1 Daqing oil field (China)*2 Dar es Salaam capital city (Tanzania)*1 Darjeeling city (India)*1 data processing*1 Datong, Shanxi (China)*1 Datong-Qinghuangdao Railway (China)*1 Davao city (Philippines)*1 defense cooperation*1 Delaware state (U.S.)*1 Democratic Party (U.S.)*1 Denver, Colorado (U.S.)*3 deportation (Nazism)*1 Des Moines, Iowa (U.S.)*1 Des Moines River (U.S.)*1 Detroit, Michigan (U.S.)*1 Dezhou, Shandong (China)*1 diamond (commodity)*2 digital history*1 Dire Dawa city (Ethiopia)*1 disaster evacuation*1 domesticity (India)*1 Dominican Republic (country, Caribbean)*2 Dongguan, Guangdong (China)*1 Dongola Wind Farm (Sudan)*1 Dongting Lake (China)*1 Dongying, Shandong (China)*1 Douglas MacArthur (people)*1 Drancy concentration camp (France)*1 DR Congo (country, Central Africa)*2 Drei Pagoden border bridge (Thailand/Myanmar)*1 Dresden city (Germany)*1 Duluth, Minnesota (U.S.)*1 Dunhuang, Gansu (China)*1 Durban port (South Africa)*1 Dutch East India Company (VOC)*1 earthquake (geology)*2 East Africa*1 East Asia*1 Easter Island (Chile)*1 ebola (disease)*1 economic assistance (diplomacy)*1 Edward H. Harriman (people)*1 Edward Plateau (U.S.)*1 Egypt (country, Africa/Asia)*3 Ejuamena Bauxite Mine (Ghana)*1 El-Obeid city (Sudan)*1 electricity supply*1 Elmina Castle (Ghana)*1 emancipation of slaves*1 Emmerson Mnangagwa (people)*1 Empalme, Sonora (Mexico)*1 endangered species (animal)*1 Équateur province (DR Congo)*1 Eskişehir city (Turkey)*1 Estonia (country, Northern Europe)*1 Ethiopia (country, Horn of Africa)*4 Ethiopia-Kenya electricity transmission line*2 EU Zone*1 Eward H. Harriman (people)*2 extraterritoriality (law)*1 ExxonMobil (company)*1 Fairchild Semiconductors (company)*1 Faisalabad city (Pakistan)*1 Falun Gong (religious organization)*1 Famen, Shaanxi (China)*1 Fargo, North Dakota (U.S.)*1 Federal Elections Bill (U.S.)*1 Fengman Dam (China)*1 Ferganan Valley (Central Asia)*1 ferrochrome (alloy)*1 fiber optics*2 Fiji (country, Oceania)*1 financial panic*1 Fincha Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Finland (country, Northern Europe)*1 First Transcontinental Railway (U.S.)*3 fishing industry*1 flood control*1 Florence city (Italy)*1 Florida state (U.S.)*2 foreign loan*4 forestry*3 Fortworth, Texa (U.S.)*1 Fossoli di Carpi concentration camp (Italy)*1 France (country, Western Europe)*5 freedom of religion*2 Freetown city (Sierra Leone)*1 FRELIMO Military Training Zone (Mozambique)*1 French coal industry*1 French Guiana (territory, South America)*1 Fujian province (China)*1 Fujitsu (company)*1 Fukuoka region (Japan)*2 Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in 2011*1 Fuling, Sichuan (China)*1 fur (commodity)*1 Fushan, Liaoning (China)*1 Galle city (Sri Lanka)*1 Gan River (China)*1 Gansu province (China)*2 Gaoyou, Jiangsu (China)*1 gay-owned business*1 Gaza region (Mozambique)*1 Genale Dawa Dam (Ethiopia)*1 gender and domesticity*1 Genghis Khan (people)*1 Geoje city (South Korea)*1 George Floyd (people)*1 Georgia state (U.S.)*4 German Federal Government*1 Germany (country, Europe)*7 Gerrha historic city (Eastern Arabia)*1 Ghana (country, West Africa)*1 giant panda (animal)*2 Gibe Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Gilgit city (Pakistan)*1 ginger (commodity)*1 glass (commodity)*1 global eradication of smallpox*1 global outbreak*1 Glorieta mountain pass (U.S.)*1 Goa (Indian)*1 Goa state (India)*3 Gobi Desert (China and Mongolia)*1 gold (commodity)*1 Golden Age of Korean Anime*1 gold mine*1 Golmud, Xinjiang (China)*2 Goma Dam (Sierra Leone)*1 Gondar city (Ethiopia)*1 government responsibility*1 Go West Campaign (China)*1 Grand Canyon (U.S.)*1 Grand Renaissance Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Grand River (U.S.)*1 Grand Trunk Railway (U.S.)*1 grazing land*1 Great Dyke mine (Zimbabwe)*1 Great Lakes of North America*1 Great Leap Forward Campaign (China)*1 Great Wall of China*1 Greece (country, Southeast Europe)*2 green energy*1 Greenstone Belt mine (zimbabwe)*1 Guadalajara city (Mexico)*1 Guangdong province (China)*2 Guangxi province (China)*1 Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)*6 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)*1 guerilla military training*1 Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)*1 Guilin province (China)*1 Guilin province*1 Guizhou province (China)*1 gunpowder (commodity)*1 Gupta Empire (India)*1 Guyana (country, South America)*1 Gwadar port (Pakistan)*1 Gyeongbokgung Palace (South Korea)*1 Gyeonggi-do province (South Korea)*1 Hainan province (China)*2 Haiti (country, Caribbean)*2 Hamburg city (Germany)*1 Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)*4 Hankou, Hubei (China)*2 Hankou-Hong Kong Railway*1 Hanoi capital city (Vietnam)*2 Haoliners Animation League (company)*1 Harare capital city (Zimbabwe)*2 Harbin, Heilongjiang (China)*5 Harcourt port (Nigeria)*1 hate crime*2 Hawaii state (U.S.)*1 health insurance coverage*1 heat map (data visualization)*1 Hebei province (China)*1 Hefei, Anhui (China)*1 Helena, Montana (U.S.)*1 Helsinki capital city (Finland)*1 Henan province (China)*3 Herāt oasis city (Afghanistan)*1 herbal medicine*1 herd mentality (psychology)*2 Hexi Corridor (China)*1 Heyuan, Guangdong (U.S.)*1 High-Tech Development Zone*1 Hitachi (company)*1 HIV/AIDS (disease)*3 HIV/AIDS*3 HIV/AIDS discrimination*1 Hohhot, Inner Mongolia (China)*1 Hội An historic city (Vietname)*1 Holocaust (genocide)*1 Honda Motor (company)*1 Honduras (country, Central America)*1 Hong Kong SAR (China)*9 Honululu, Hawaii (U.S.)*1 House of Sharing (Museum of Sexual Slavery by the Japanese Military)*1 Houston, Texas (U.S.)*4 Hsinchu municipality (Taiwan)*1 Huai River (China)*1 Hualien city (Taiwan)*1 Huangshan Moutains (China)*1 Huawei Technologies (company)*3 Hubei Lianfeng Overseas Agricultural Development Group (company)*1 Hubei province (China)*2 Hulun Lake (China)*1 humanitarian efforts*1 human rights issue*2 Hunan province (China)*1 Hungary (country, Central Europe)*1 Hwange Thermal Power Plant (Zimbabwe)*1 hydropower*3 Ibadan city (Nigeria)*1 Id Kah Mosque, Xinjiang (China)*1 Ili Rebellion in 1944 (China)*1 illegal drugs*1 Illinois Central Railway (U.S.)*2 Illinois River (U.S.)*1 Illinois state (U.S.)*3 immigrants-Czech*1 immigrants-German*1 immigrants-Irish*1 immigrants-Italian*1 immigrants-Jewish*1 immigrants-Polish*1 immigration policy*1 immigration route*1 Incheon city (South Korea)*2 Incheon Free Economic Zone (IFEZ)*1 indentured laborers*1 Independence Creek, Montana (U.S.)*1 India (country, South Asia)*15 Indiana state (U.S.)*1 Indian Ocean*1 individualism*2 Indonesia (country, Southeast Asia)*4 industrial influence*6 infection rate per population*6 information technology*1 infrastructure*6 infrastructure: highway*2 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region*1 institutional discrimination*1 insurance rate per population*1 Iowa state (U.S.)*2 Iran (country, Western Asia)*6 Iraq (country, Western Asia)*1 Ireland (country, northwestern Europe)*1 Isfahan region (Iran)*1 Islam (religion)*1 Islamic insurgency*1 Istanbul city (Turkey)*3 Italy (country, Southern Europe)*4 Jackson, Missouri (U.S.)*1 Jair Bolsonaro (peopole)*1 Jakarta, Java (Indonesia)*2 Jamaica (country, Caribbean)*2 Jamestown, North Dakota (U.S.)*1 James VI of Scotland and England (people)*1 Japan (country, East Asia)*27 Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel Project*1 Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association*1 Japan-Vietnam Trade Association*1 Japanese colonialism*3 Japanese Constitution*1 Japanese Imperial Army*1 Japaneseness*1 Japanese overseas investment*1 Japanese population*1 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)*1 Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF)*1 Java island (Indonesia)*3 Jay Gould (people)*2 Ji'nan, Shandong (China)*2 Jiangsu province (China)*2 Jiaxing, Zhejiang (China)*2 Jiayuguan, Gansu (China)*2 Jilin province (China)*1 Jiuquan, Gansu (China)*1 John Pierpont Morgan (people)*2 Johns Canyon, Arizona (U.S.)*1 John Wesley (people)*1 Joseph R. Biden Jr. (people)*1 JYP Entertainment (company)*1 Kabul (Afghanistan)*1 Kaifeng, Henan (China)*2 Kampong Cham province (Cambodia)*1 Kampong Thom province (Cambodia)*1 Kano city (Nigeria)*1 Kansanshi Copper Mine (Zambia)*1 Kansas City, Missouri (U.S.)*1 Kansas state (U.S.)*3 Kaosiung city (Taiwan)*1 Kaosiung Japanese School (Taiwan)*1 Karachi port (Pakistan)*3 Karakorum historic city (Mongolia)*1 Karatsu city (Japan)*1 Karawang city (Indonesia)*1 Kariba South Power Station (Zimbabwe)*1 Kashgar, Xinjiang (China)*1 Katanga province (D.R.Congo)*1 Kaura Namoda area (Nigeria)*1 Kazakhstan (country, Central Asia)*2 Keelung city (U.S.)*1 Keijo Imperial University (Korea)*1 Kenya (country, Eastern Africa)*2 Khabarovsk city (Russia)*1 Khartoum (Sudan)*2 Khorgos, Xinjiang (China)*1 Kibi bauxite deposits (Ghana)*1 Kiev/Kyiv capital city (Ukraine)*1 Kinshasa capital city (DR Congo)*1 Kirkenes border town (Norway)*1 Kisumu city (Kenya)*1 Kochi port (India)*1 Koka Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Kolkata/Calcutta city (India)*4 Konkola Copper Mine (Zambia)*1 Konya/Iconium (Turkey)*1 Korea*1 Korea-Japan Culture Festival*1 Korean Penisula*1 Korean War*1 Korla, Xinjiang (China)*2 Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)*1 Kpong Water Supply (Ghana)*1 Kra Canal/Thai Canal (Thailand)*1 Kunming, Yunnan (China)*2 Kunshan, Jiangsu (China)*1 Kushan Empire (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India)*1 Kuwait (country, Western Asia)*1 Kyrgyzstan (country, Central Asia)*1 Lake T'ana (Ethiopia)*1 Lake Victoria (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania)*1 Lancashire, England (U.K.)*1 landfill/waste disposal*1 Lansing, Michigan (U.S.)*1 Lanzhou, Gansu (China)*6 Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway (China)*1 Laodicea historic city (Turkey)*1 Laos*1 Las Vegas, Nevada(U.S.)*1 leadership*1 Lebanon*2 LEKMA Hospital (Ghana)*1 LG Electronics (company)*1 Lhasa, Tibet (China)*2 Liaoning Peninsula*1 Liberal Democrative Party (Japan)*1 Lingayen Gulf (Philippines)*1 liquefied natural gas (LNG)*1 Lisbon (Portugal)*1 Liuyuan, Gansu (China)*1 Liuzhou (China)*1 Lodz/Łódź city (Poland)*1 logging ban (forestry)*1 London*3 London capital city (U.K.)*2 Longhai/Lunghai Railway (China)*1 Los Angeles, California (U.S.)*10 Louisiana (U.S.)*1 Loulan, Xinjiang (China)*1 Lower Yangtze region (China)*3 Luanda (Angola)*1 Lubambe Copper Mine (Zambia)*1 Lunblin city (Poland)*1 Luoyang, Henan (China)*1 Luther L. Terry (people)*1 Luxembourg*1 Luzhou, Sichuan (China)*1 Luzon island (Philippines)*1 Luzon island*1 Lviv/Lvov city (Ukraine)*1 Macau (China)*1 Macuse port (Mozambique)*1 Madagascar*1 Madeira region (Portugal)*1 Magbass Sugar Complex (Sierra Leone)*1 Maiduguri city (Nigeria)*1 Maine (U.S.)*2 maize (commodity)*2 Majdanek extermination camp (Poland)*1 Makassar city (Indonesia)*1 Makeni-Mototoka Highway (Sierra Leone)*1 Malangas Coal Reservation (Philippines)*2 Malaysia*4 Maldives (country, Indian Ocean)*2 Malta (country, Mediterranean Sea)*1 Maluka Islands (Indonesia)*1 Mamamah Airport (Sierra Leone)*1 Manchukuo puppet state*1 Manchuria (China)*5 mandate-facial mask*2 mandate-quarantine*1 mandate-school closing*1 Manichaeism (religion)*1 Manila Bay (Philippines)*1 Manila capital city (Philippines)*4 manufacturing*1 Mao Zedong (people)*1 Maputo region (Mozambique)*1 maritime piracy*2 maritime shipping*3 Marquesas islands (French Polynesia)*1 Marubeni (company)*1 Maryland (U.S.)*3 Mashhad city (Iran)*1 Massachusetts state (U.S.)*1 Matama Wheat Farm (Mozambique)*1 Matteo Ricci (people)*1 Mauritius*2 Mayon Volcano (Philippines)*1 Mazatlán, Sinaloa (Mexico)*1 Mecca (Saudi Arabia)*1 Mechelen concentration camp (Belgium)*1 Medan, Sumatra (Indonesia)*1 Mediterranean Sea*1 Mekong River (China, Myanmar, Laos, Thialand, Cambodia, Vietnam)*1 Melka Wakena Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Memphisis, Tennessee (U.S.)*1 Mercosur (South American trade bloc)*1 Mesopotamia historical region (Iraq and Kuwait)*1 Methodist movement*1 Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)*1 Mexico*4 Miami, FL (U.S.)*2 Michigan (U.S.)*2 Mid-Atlantic region (U.S.)*1 Middle Yangtze region (China)*1 Midwest region (U.S.)*1 migration*3 militarism*1 military base*2 military involvement*1 Milwaukee*1 Milwaukee, WI (U.S.)*1 Mindanao Island (Philippines)*1 mine sweeping*1 mining industry*7 Minna city (Nigeria)*1 Minneapolis, Minnesota (U.S.)*1 Minnesota*1 Minnesota state (U.S.)*1 Miran Jail, Xinjiang (China)*1 missionary (religion)*1 missionary*1 Mississippi River (U.S.)*2 Missoula, Montana (U.S.)*1 Missouri (U.S.)*1 Missouri River (U.S.)*1 Moatize-Macuse Railway (Mozambique)*1 Moatize Coal Fields (Mozambique)*1 mobile network: 2G*1 mobile network: 3G*1 mobile network: 4G*1 Modderfontein New City (South Africa)*1 Mohe border town (China)*1 Mombasa port (Kenya)*1 Mongol Empire (13th and 14th centuries)*1 Mongolia*1 Mongols*1 Montana (U.S.)*2 Montana state (U.S.)*1 Montreal, Quebec (Canada)*1 Mopani Copper mines (Zambia)*1 Morocco*1 Moros Islands (Philippines)*1 mortality rate*2 Moscow (Russia)*1 Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua and Honduras)*1 Mosul city (Iraq)*1 Mount Samat National Shrine of Valor (Philippines)*1 Mozambique*2 MTN Group (company)*1 Mufulira Mine (Zambia)*1 Multan, Punjab (Pakistan)*2 Murano islands (Italy)*1 Muscat (Oman)*2 Musina-Makhado Special Economic Zone (South Africa)*1 Myanmar/Burma (country, Southeast Asia)*2 Nacala Deep Water Port (Mozambique)*1 Nagasaki port (Japan)*2 Nairobi capital city (Kenya)*1 Naivasha railway town (Kenya)*1 Nanchang, Jiangxi (China)*2 Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)*7 Nanning, Guangxi (China)*1 Nantong, Jiangsu (China)*1 Nashville, Tennessee (U.S.)*1 National Folk Museum of Korea (Seoul)*1 nationality law*1 native Americans*1 NATURAL*2 natural gas field*4 natural gas pipeline*4 Navojoa, Sonora (Mexico)*1 Nazi Germany*1 Nebraska (U.S.)*1 Nepal*1 Nerchinsk, Siberia (Russia)*1 Nestorianism (religion)*1 Netherlands*2 NetOne (company)*1 Nevada (U.S.)*2 New Caledonia archipelago (Pacific Ocean)*1 New England (U.S.)*1 New Eurasian Land Bridge*1 New Guinea*1 New Hampshire (U.S.)*1 New Jersey (U.S.)*2 New Mexico (U.S.)*2 New Orleans (U.S.)*2 New York (U.S.)*1 New York Central Railway (U.S.)*1 New York City (U.S.)*4 New York State (U.S.)*2 NFC Africa Copper mine PLC (Zambia)*1 Niassa Wheat Farm (Mozambique)*1 Nicaragua*2 Nigeria (country, West Africa)*1 Nigeria*3 Nile River*1 Ningbo, Zhejiang (China)*1 Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR)*1 Niš city (Serbia)*1 Nishapur historic city (Iran)*1 Nissan*1 Nissan Motor (company)*1 Nogales, Sonora (Mexico)*1 non-discrimination law*1 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)*1 North China region (China)*1 North Dakota state (U.S.)*1 Northern Africa*1 Northern Pacific Railway U.S.)*1 North Korea*3 North Pole*1 North Vietnam*1 Norway*1 nuclear power plant*1 nuclear radiation*1 nuclear reactor*1 nuclear waste*1 nugmet (commodity)*1 NYC taxi workers*1 Occupied China (1937-45)*1 Official Development Assistance (ODA)*1 Ogden, Utah (U.S.)*1 Ohio (U.S.)*1 Ohio River Valley (U.S.)*1 oil field*13 oil import*1 oil pipeline*3 oil refinery*2 Okinawa island (Japan)*3 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (U.S.)*1 Oman*1 opium (commodity)*1 opium wars (China v. Britain)*1 Ordos Loop region (China)*1 Oregon (U.S.)*2 Oregon state (U.S.)*1 Orlanda, Florida (U.S.)*1 Ottoman Empire*2 Pacific Ocean*2 Pacific Railway Act of 1862*1 pacifism*1 Pakistan*3 Palawan Mangrove Forest (Philippines)*1 palm oil (commodity)*1 Pamuto Farm Zones (Mozambique)*1 Pan-Philippine Highway*2 Panama*1 pandemic*22 pandemic governance*2 Pangyo Techno Valley (South Korea)*1 Panic of 1893*2 Papua province (Indonesia)*1 Paris (France)*1 partisan divide (U.S.)*1 Pawnee (native American tribe)*1 peace*2 Pearl River Delta (China)*2 Pennsylvania (U.S.)*2 Pepel-Marampa Iron Ore Mine (Sierra Leone)*1 pepper (commodity)*2 Persia*2 Persian Gulf*1 Peru*1 Peter B. Hessler (people)*2 petrochemical complex*1 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (U.S.)*6 Philippine-Japan Friendship Highway*1 Philippine national railway*1 Philippines*6 Phnom Penh (Cambodia)*1 Phoenix, Arizona (U.S.)*4 photovoltaic power*1 Phuket island (Thailand)*1 Piraeus port (Greece)*1 pollution*2 population crisis*1 population density*1 porcelain (commodity)*1 Port Arthur, Liaodong Penisula (China)*1 Port Chabarha (Iran)*1 port expansion*1 Portland, Oregon (U.S.)*1 Port of Sines (Portugal)*1 Portsmouth Naval Prison, ME (U.S.)*1 Portugal*6 port wine (commodity)*1 post-pandemic economic recovery*1 poverty*1 power plant*1 Poyang Lake (China)*1 Prague (Czech Republic)*1 prawn farming*1 Preah Sihanouk province (Cambodia)*1 presidential election (U.S.)*1 prison*1 prostitution*1 Protestantism*1 Puerto Rico*2 pumped storage power station*1 Pursat province (Cambodia)*1 Qingdao, Shandong (China)*2 Qinghai-Tibet Railway (China)*1 Qinghai Lake (China)*1 Qinghai province (China)*1 Qinghai province*1 Qinhuangdao Port, Hebei (China)*1 Qinling/Qin Mountains (China)*1 Qiqihar, Heilongjiang (China)*1 Quaker politics*1 Quanzhou, Fujian (China)*2 Race-African Americans*1 Race-Asian Americans*2 Race-Hispanic Americans*1 Race-Native Americans*1 racial disparity*1 Radom city (Poland)*1 railway*24 railway-narrow gauge*2 railway-standard gauge*3 Rainbow Gala (Hong Kong)*1 rape victim*1 Ratón mountain pass*1 Rayong port (Thailand)*1 real estate industry*1 red states v. blue states (U.S.)*1 religion*1 religious cult*2 relocation*1 renewable energy*1 Republican Party (U.S.)*1 Rhode Island state (U.S.)*1 rice (commodity)*3 rice field*1 Richards Bay Port (South Africa)*1 Rider Steel Ghana (company)*1 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)*1 Rio Tuba Mine (Philippines)*1 Rio Tuba mine (Philippines)*1 Robert Mugabe (people)*1 Rochester, New York (U.S.)*1 Roman Empire*1 Romania*1 Rome capital city (Italy)*2 Ronald Reagan (people)*1 Rovuma Natural Gas Field (Mozambique)*1 Rovuma Oil Field (Mozambique)*1 Royal Gorge, Colorado (U.S.)*1 rubber plantation*1 Ruili, Yunnan (China)*1 Ruoqiang, Xinjiang (China)*1 Russia (Czarist empire)*1 Russia*8 Russian liberalism*1 Russo-Japanese War*1 Ryuku Islands (Japan)*1 sacramentalism*1 Saigon (Vietnam)*1 Sakai port (Japan)*1 Salonika concentration camp (Greece)*1 salt (commodity)*1 Samarkand city (Uzbekistan)*1 Samoa (Polynesian island country)*1 Samsung Group (company)*1 Sanbao Ghana Pharmaceutical (company)*1 San Blas, Nayarit (Mexico)*1 San Diego, California (U.S.)*3 San Francisco, California (U.S.)*8 Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang (China)*1 San Jose*2 San Jose, California (U.S.)*1 Sanmenxia, Hhenan (China)*1 Santa Fe, New Mexico (U.S.)*1 Sanxingdui Civilization (China)*1 São Paulo city (Brazil)*1 São Tomé and Príncipe*1 sarin gas*2 SARS*2 Sasanian Empire/Neo-Persian Empire*1 Saudi Arabia*1 scapegoating*1 school closing*2 Sea of Japan*1 Seattle, Washington (U.S.)*6 Second Sino-Japanese War*1 Security*1 semiconductor (commodity)*1 Senate Floor (U.S.)*1 Sentinel Copper Mine (Zambia)*1 Seongnam city (South Korea)*1 Seoul (South Korea)*4 Septwolves Tobacco (company)*1 Serbia*1 sewage system*1 sex slavery*1 Shaanxi province (China)*2 Sham Shui Po (Hong Kong)*1 Shandong province (China)*1 Shanghai Animation Studio (company)*1 Shanghai Municipality (China)*9 Shanghai Taomee Network & Technology (company)*1 Shangqiu, Henan (China)*1 Shantou, Guangdong (China)*1 Shanxi province (China)*2 Sharefun Animation Studio (company)*1 sheep (commodity)*1 Shell plc (company)*1 Shengli Oil Field, Shandong (China)*1 Shenyang/Fengtian/Mukden, Liaoning (China)*6 Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)*1 Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)*3 Shinto shrines*1 Shizo Abe (people)*1 Shoko Asahara (people)*2 Shoshone (native American tribe)*1 Shuifeng/Sup'ung Dam (China)*1 Siaka Stevens National Stadium (Sierra Leone)*1 Sichuan province (China)*2 Sicily island (Italy)*1 Siem Reap city (Cambodia)*1 Sierra Leone*2 Silk Road*15 Singapore*4 Sioux (native American tribe)*1 sisal (commodity)*1 slavery (Bermuda)*1 slave trade*1 smallpox*1 smoke reduction*1 Sobibor extermination camp (Poland)*1 socialism*1 social uprising*1 social welfare*1 Society Islands (French Polynesian)*1 Sofala region (Mozambique)*1 Sofia city (Bulgaria)*1 solar photovoltaic stations*1 Solomon Islands*1 Somalia (country, Horn of Africa)*2 Songhua River (China)*1 Songjiang, Shanghai (China)*1 Sonora province (Mexico)*1 South-to-North Water Diversion Project (China)*1 South Africa*5 South America*1 South Atlantic Ocean*1 South China Sea*1 South Chungcheong province (South Korea)*1 South Dakota (U.S.)*2 Southeast Asia*2 Southern Europe*1 Southern Manchurian Railway Company (SMR)*1 Southern Pacific Railway (U.S.)*1 South Korea (Republic of Korea)*7 South Manchurian Railway*2 South Manchurian Railway Company (SMR)*1 South Sudan*1 South Vietnam*1 sovereignty*1 soybean (commodity)*2 Spain*5 Spanish flu (disease)*9 Special Economic Zone (SEZ)*4 spice (commodity)*2 Spice Islands (Indonesia)*1 spice trade*1 Spokane, Washington (U.S.)*1 Springfield, Missouri (U.S.)*1 Sri Lanka*6 St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway (U.S. and Canada)*1 St. Lawrence River (U.S. and Canada)*1 St. Paul, Minnesota (U.S.)*1 stainless steel (commodity)*1 Statue of Peace (Seoul)*1 steel (commodity)*2 Steenkampskraal Rare Earth Mine (South Africa)*1 Strait of Hormuz*3 Strait of Malacca*2 Strait of Suez*1 Sudan*4 Suez Canal (Egypt)*1 sugar (commodity)*2 sugarcane (plant)*1 sugar plant*1 Sulu Sea (Philippines)*1 Sumatra Island (Indonesia)*1 Surabaya city (Indonesia)*1 Suriname (country)*1 Suvarnabhumi Airport/Bankok Airport (Thailand)*1 Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)*3 Svay Rieng province (Cambodia)*1 Sweden*1 Tabriz, East Azerbaijan (Iran)*1 Tacoma, Washington (U.S.)*1 Tai'an, Shandong (China)*1 Taichuang municipality (Taiwan)*1 Taichung Japanese School (Taiwan)*1 Tainan municipality (Taiwan)*1 Taipei city (Taiwan)*1 Taipei Japanese School (Taiwan)*1 Taitung city (Taiwan)*1 Taiwan*4 Taixing, Jiangsu (China)*1 Taizhou/Taichow city (China)*1 Tajikstan*1 Taklamakan Desert, Xinjiang (China)*1 Tamil Nadu state (India)*1 Tampa, Florida (U.S.)*1 Tampakan Mine (Philippines)*1 Tana Beles Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Tanganyika National Library (Tanzania)*1 Tangshan, Hebei (China)*1 Tanzania*3 Tanzania-Zambia Railway*1 Taos, New Mexico (U.S.)*1 Taoyuan, Shanxi (China)*2 tea (commodity)*1 technology war*1 Tehachapi Mountains (U.S.)*1 Tehran capital city (Iran)*5 Tekeze Dam (Ethiopia)*1 telecommunications*2 Tell el-Amarna historic site (Egypt)*1 Tema Free Zone (Mozambique)*1 Temecula Canyon, California (U.S.)*1 Tendaho Dam (Ethiopia)*1 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)*1 Terracotta Army (art)*1 terrorism*2 Teshie Community Clinic, Accra (Ghana)*1 Tete province (Mozambique)*1 Texas (U.S.)*4 Thai-Myanmar Railroad*1 Thailand*3 The Arctic*1 The Caribbean*1 The Jesuits*1 theology of body*1 Theresienstadt/Terezín concentration camp (Czech Republic)*1 Thessaloniki historic city (Greece)*1 Three Gorges Dam (China)*2 Tianjin-Pukou Railway (China)*1 Tianjin municipality (China)*4 Tianshan Mountains (Central Asia)*1 Tibet Autonomous Region (China)*3 timber (commodity)*1 tiraz*1 tobacco (commodity)*2 Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)*1 Tokyo Gas Attack in 1995*2 Tombo Artisanal Fishing Harbor (Sierra Leone)*1 Tonga (Polynesian country)*1 Tonichi, Sonora (Mexico)*1 Tonkolili Iron Ore Mine (Sierra Leone)*1 Topeka, Kansas (U.S.)*2 Toronto, Ontario (Canada)*1 Toshiba Information Equipment Philippines (commodity)*1 tourism*6 Toyota Motor Corporation (company)*3 trade balance*1 trade fair*1 Trans-Asian Railway (TAR)*1 Trans-Siberian Railway (Russia)*1 transportation: airline*1 transportation: high-speed rail (HSR)*1 transportation: hub city*1 trawling (fishing)*1 Treblinka extermination camp (Poland)*1 tsunami*1 Tubbataha Reef, Sulu Sea (Philippines)*1 tuberculosis (disease)*2 Tunisia*1 Turkey*3 Turkmenistan*3 Turpan, Xinjiang (China)*1 Tyre historic city (Lebanon)*1 Tyr historic village (Russia)*1 U.S.-Germany comparison*1 U.S.-Japan Treaty*1 U.S. Army-Fort Devens, Kansas (U.S.)*1 U.S. Army-Fort Devens, Massachusetts (U.S.)*1 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)*2 U.S. Government*1 U.S. Marine Corps*1 U.S. Presidential Election in 2020*1 U.S. Senate*1 Uganda*1 Ugarit port (Syria)*1 Ukraine*2 Ulsan metropolitan city (South Korea)*1 Umayyad Caliphate (Islam)*1 Unemployment rate*1 Union Pacific Railway (China)*1 Union Pacific Railway*1 United Arab Emirates*1 United Kingdom (country, Europe)*1 United Kingdom*1 United Socialist Soviet Republic (U.S.S.R.)*1 United States*40 Upper Yangtze region*1 Urban Water Supply Project*1 Uruguay*2 Urumqi (China)*3 USSR*1 Ussurysk (Russia)*1 Utah (U.S.)*2 utopia*2 Uyghur Khaganate*1 Uyghurs/Uighurs (Turkic ethnic group)*1 Uzbekistan*2 vaccination*4 Vadodara, Gujarat (India)*1 Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)*2 Van province (Turkey)*1 Vanuatu (country, South Pacific Ocean)*1 Venezuela (country, South America)*2 Venice city (Italy)*1 Vermont state (U.S.)*1 Vienna capital city (Austria)*1 Vietnam (country, Southeast Asia)*6 Virginia state (U.S.)*1 Vladivostok port (Russia)*1 Wallace Line (Asia/Australia)*1 war*1 war crime*1 war reparation*1 Warsaw capital city (Poland)*2 Warsaw Pact of 1955*1 Washington D.C. (U.S.)*6 Washington state (U.S.)*1 waste treatment*1 water dam*3 water resources*1 Weifang, Shandong (China)*1 Wei River Valley (China)*1 Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)*1 Westerbork concentration camp (Netherlands)*1 Western Europe*2 Western Ghats/Sahyadri mountain range (India)*1 Western New York state (U.S.)*1 West Lake, Hangzhou (China)*1 wetland loss*1 wine (commodity)*2 Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)*1 Wisconsin state (U.S.)*1 Witwatersrand Basin (South Africa)*1 wool (commodity)*1 World Health Organization (WHO)*2 World War II*1 Wuhan, Hubei (China)*3 Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation (company)*1 Wuhu, Anhui (China)*1 Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)*2 Wuyi Moutains, Fujian (China)*1 Wyoming state (U.S.)*2 Xi'an, Shaanxi (China)*3 Xiamen, Fujian (China)*1 Xiang River, Hunan (China)*1 Xianyang, Shaanxi (China)*1 Xikang region, Tibet (China)*1 Xining, Qinghai (China)*2 Xinjiang Autonomous Region (China)*2 Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China)*1 yak trade*1 Yalu border river (China/North Korea)*1 Yan'an, Shaanxi (China)*1 Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture*1 Yancheng, Jiangsu (China)*1 Yanghzhou, Jiangsu*1 Yangon/Rangoon city (Myanmar)*1 Yangtze River (China)*1 Yangtze River Delta (China)*1 Yantai, Shandong (China)*2 Year 1880s*1 Year 1918*6 Year 1945*1 Year 1950-51*1 Year 1984*1 Year 2003*1 Year 2014*1 Year 2017*1 Year 2019*2 Year 2020*24 Year 2021*3 Years 1950s*1 Years 1960s*1 Years 1980s*1 Years 1990s*1 Yellow River*4 Yemen (country, Afrabian Peninsula)*1 Yerevan capital city (Amenia)*1 Yichang, Hubei (China)*1 Yichuan (China)*1 Yiwu, Zhejiang (China)*1 Youyi Friendship Highway (Sierra Leone)*1 Yuanhua Group (company)*1 Yunnan province (China)*1 Yu the Great (people)*1 Zambezi Valley Agro Ecological Zone (Mozambique)*1 Zambia (country, Africa)*2 Zangmu Dam, Tibet (China)*1 Zanzibar region (Tanzania)*3 Zaria city (Nigeria)*1 ZCCM Investment Holdings (company)*1 Zhang Qian (people)*1 Zhejiang province (China)*1 Zhejiang province*1 Zhengzhou (China)*5 Zhengzhou-Taiyuan Railway (China)*1 Zhenjiang (China)*1 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)*1 Zhongshan, Guangdong (China)*1 Zhou Enlai (people)*1 Zhuzhou, Hunan (China)*1 Zibo, Shandong (China)*1 Zimbabawe (country, Africa)*2 Zimbabwe-Zambia-Mozambique Railway*1 Zoroastrianism (religion)*1 ZTE Corporation (company)*1